To help clarify what a complete Physical Cosmology Hypothesis looks like I’ve provided an example blank Cosmology Hypothesis Application Form here.
This is because no astronomical institutions (e.g. IAU, or AAS) and few published cosmology papers (I’m still waiting to see the first one) provide a complete or sufficient hypothesis for the Standard Cosmology Model they purport to be working under.
Hypothesis Independent from Evidence and Conclusions
We can use evidence from other experiments to form a hypothesis, however providing a complete hypothesis is independent from, and must wholly precede, all evidence and conclusions that the experiment is supposed to generate.
A scientific hypothesis is fully complete before evidence is examined and rejected or conclusions reached. To put it more bluntly – evidence is irrelevant until one has a complete unambiguous hypothesis.
You will also find a partially filled-in Cosmology Hypothesis Application Form with the answers for one of the several dozen Big Bang models – a Lambda Cold-Dark Matter model, and to provide a baseline, a filled in form for a Static Universe hypothesis.
This blank form begins with questions to identify which mathematics, geometry and dynamics are employed or required by the claim.
However, questions such as whether the proposed Cosmology conjecture has a beginning or how much space curvature are not fundamental to a cosmological hypothesis, they are derived from interpretations of evidence.
Here is a partially filled-in Cosmology Hypothesis Application Form with the answers for the leading Big Bang model – one of many Lambda Cold-Dark Matter models. There are many because there are so many adjustable LCDM parameters; and they all vary depending on the researcher.
As you can see – several key questions are not completed, because as far as my research shows, no one has ever clearly answered them. If you have better information for any question / answer, please point me to the published reference and I’m happy to update this. (However, the LCDM Geometry answer is blank because there are vaguely conflicting claims, not because there are no claims.)
As I would try to gently remind Science Fair students, no one gets the luxury of describing only those parts of the experiment they want to – we must clearly describe all possible variables that could affect our results.
For example: Photon-matter interactions per year (PMIY) turns out to be crucial for evaluating Redshift and Cosmic Microwave radiation. But it is a variable / parameter that LCDM / Big Bang supporters ignore. The best answer I have found is vaguely along the lines of – “there are no interactions other than the photons which are fully absorbed” (meaning lost).
Until we have clear, unambiguous answers for all the form’s questions, it is my opinion the Lambda Cold-Dark Matter model is not yet a complete, or an adequate, scientific hypothesis.
To provide a baseline I have included a form filled in with parameters for Static Universe.
I find it notable how Static Universes do not require any unobserved matter, forces, energy or phenomena, in sharp contrast to Big Bang models. (remember the Static Universe concept is very different from the Steady-State Universe.)
You are cordially invited to suggest improvements or supply citations to missing answers for the forms.
with my best wishes,
Note: The forms are currently printable PDFs, but I plan to provide interactive versions soon.