A new record distance to a huge galaxy named GN-z11 has been observed and measured. It is dramatically farther than the previous distance holder. The constantly amazing Hubble Space telescope measured its distance spectroscopically at a Spectral line Redshift of 11.1.
“We’ve taken a major step back in time, beyond what we’d ever expected to be able to do with Hubble. We managed to look back in time to measure the distance to a galaxy when the Universe was only three percent of its current age.” – Pascal Oesch, lead paper author.
Previous to this discovery, the furthest measured galaxy, EGSY8p7, is at a redshift of “only” z=8.68.
Due to its large spectral line redshift, researchers calculate that this large (billion solar masses) galaxy is being viewed only 400 million years after Big Bang; . . . which presents a major set of headaches for Big Bang.
“It’s amazing that a galaxy so massive existed only 200 million to 300 million years after the very first stars started to form. It takes really fast growth, producing stars at a huge rate, to have formed a galaxy that is a billion solar masses so soon,” explains Garth Illingworth of the University of California, Santa Cruz and Lick Observatory, one of the paper’s co-authors.
According to Big Bang the first atoms were created some 380 thousand years after universe start up, and until recently, most of us believed the first star began shining about 400 million years later. (1)
However, leading researchers European Space Agency’s PLANCK mission updated the Big Bang Timeline in 2015 by reporting the first generation of stars did not light up until some 560 million years after the Big Bang.
This new extraordinarily, unexpectedly distant galaxy, GN-z11, raises a calamitous, and likely fatal problem for Big Bang. That’s because there is no reasonable way to explain the existence of a huge, complete galaxy (not the mere starting formation of a galaxy) in the “blink of an eye.” Only ~ 400 million years after the first atoms were created. (For reference it was “only” 400 million years ago when Earth’s first creatures left the ocean and evolved into dinosaurs.)
The impossible part is that this gigantic, completely formed galaxy we can see today existed 160 million years BEFORE Big Bang says the first stars lit up !
So we’re supposed to believe it took 400 thousand years to make the first atoms, 560 million years (roughly 1,200 times as long) to make the first stars, but a galaxy existed ~30 percent earlier than the first stars; a huge, billion-solar-mass, viable, coherent galaxy existed ?
. . . Ok . . .
This also is a big problem for the “cosmic microwave background” idea because all the cosmic microwave radiation calculated as being “background” – must have been emitted at the same time as we see the huge galaxy GN-z11 today !
So much for “Precision cosmology.”
What do you think ?
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(1) NASA’s Old Big Bang Timeline.
Preprint paper “A Remarkably Luminous Galaxy at z=11.1 Measured with Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy“by Pascal Oesch et al., March 2016
Thanks to John Kierein for alerting me to this research.
An interesting Book putting this in perspective is available at Amazon:
The Poster below (at Amazon) is of a previous record distance galaxy.